|United States of America|
Estados Unidos De America
"E Pluribus Unum.
"The Star Spangled Banner"
The United States of America as of November 30th, 2050.
|Official language||English (de facto)|
|Government||Constitutional Federal Populist Democracy|
|Head of State
|Population||420 million (2050)|
The United States of America (commonly referred to as the United States, the U.S., the USA, or America) is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty-six states and a federal district. The country is situated mostly in central North America, where its fifty-six contiguous states lie between the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, bordered by Canada to the north and Mexico to the south. The state of Alaska is in the northwest of the continent, with Canada to its east and Russia to the West across the Bering Strait. The state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific. The country had possessed several territories in the Caribbean and Pacific before being admitted to the Union after the Flood War.
At 9.84 million square kilometers and with about 4201 million people , the United States is the third largest country by total area, and the third largest by land area and population. It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many countries. The U.S. economy is the largest national economy in the world, with an estimated 2050 gross domestic product (GDP) of US $34.4 trillion (a fifth of nominal global GDP and a sixth of global GDP at purchasing power parity).
Indigenous peoples, probably of Asian descent, have inhabited what is now the mainland United States for many thousands of years. This Native American population was greatly reduced after European contact by disease and warfare. The United States was founded by thirteen British colonies located along the Atlantic seaboard. On July 4, 1776, they issued the Declaration of Independence, which proclaimed their right to self-determination and their establishment of a cooperative union. The rebellious states defeated Great Britain in the American Revolutionary War, the first successful colonial war of independence. The Philadelphia Convention adopted the current United States Constitution on September 17, 1787; its ratification the following year made the states part of a single republic with a strong central government. The Bill of Rights, comprising ten constitutional amendments guaranteeing many fundamental civil rights and freedoms, was ratified in 1791.
In the 19th century, the United States acquired land from France, Spain, the United Kingdom, Mexico, and Russia, and annexed the Republic of Texas and the Republic of Hawaii. Disputes between the agrarian South and industrial North over states' rights and the expansion of the institution of slavery provoked the American Civil War of the 1860s. The North's victory prevented a permanent split of the country and led to the end of legal slavery in the United States. By the 1870s, the national economy was the world's largest. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a military power. It emerged from World War II as the first country with nuclear weapons and a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union left the United States as the sole superpower for a period of almost two decades before the rise of China and Turkey in the 2020s that culminated in the last global conflict that left the US, and the Pacific Rim nations as cooperative superpowers in a multipolar world. The country accounts for one-eighth of global military spending and is a leading economic, political, and cultural force in the world.
Government and PoliticsEdit
The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation. It is a constitutional republic and representative democracy, "in which majority rule is tempered by minority rights protected by law." The government is regulated by a system of checks and balances defined by the U.S. Constitution, which serves as the country's supreme legal document. In the American federalist system, citizens are usually subject to three levels of government, federal, state, and local; the local government's duties are commonly split between county and municipal governments. In almost all cases, executive and legislative officials are elected by a plurality vote of citizens by district. Representation is proportional at the federal level, and in most cases at the local level as well.
The federal government is composed of three branches:
Legislative: The bicameral Congress, made up of the Senate and the House of Representatives, makes federal law, declares war, approves treaties, has the power of the purse, and has the power of impeachment, by which it can remove sitting members of the government. Most broad legislative decisions are actually left to popular referendum, while members of Congress act more as administrators and upholders of government.
Executive: The president is the commander-in-chief of the military, can veto legislative bills before they become law, and appoints the members of the Cabinet (subject to Senate approval) and other officers, who administer and enforce federal laws and policies.
Judicial: The Supreme Court and lower federal courts, whose judges are appointed by the president with Senate approval, interpret laws and overturn those they find unconstitutional.
The House of Representatives has 435 members, each representing a congressional district for a two-year term. House seats are apportioned among the states by population every tenth year. As of the 2040 census, seven states have the minimum of one representative, while Washington, the most populous state, has forty-three. The Senate has 110 members with each state having two senators, elected at-large to six-year terms; one third of Senate seats are up for election every other year. The president serves a four-year term and may be elected to the office no more than twice. The president is elected directly by popular vote. The Supreme Court, led by the Chief Justice of the United States, has nine members, who may serve for life, but must be reappointed ever five years. The state governments are structured in roughly similar fashion; Nebraska uniquely has a unicameral legislature. The governor (chief executive) of each state is directly elected. Some state judges and cabinet officers are appointed by the governors of the respective states, while some are elected by popular vote.
All laws and governmental procedures are subject to judicial review, and any law ruled in violation of the Constitution is voided. The original text of the Constitution establishes the structure and responsibilities of the federal government and its relationship with the individual states. Article One protects the right to the "great writ" of habeas corpus, and Article Three guarantees the right to a jury trial in all criminal cases. Amendments to the Constitution require the approval of three-fourths of the states. The Constitution has been amended thirty-seven times; the first ten amendments, which make up the First Bill of Rights, the Fourteenth Amendment, and the Second Bill of rights form the central basis of Americans' individual rights.
Parties, ideology, and politicsEdit
The United States had operated under a two-party system for most of its history, but as of 2050 there are roughly four major parties with a number of independent candidates. For elective offices at all levels, state-administered primary elections choose the major party nominees for subsequent general elections. Since the general election of 2028, the major parties have been the Democratic Party, founded in 1824, the Republican Party, founded in 1854, and the Green Party founded in 2001.
Within American political culture, the Republican Party is considered, generally, to be "conservative nationalists" the Democratic Party is considered "libertarian liberal," and the green party is considered to be "liberal statist" (Though all three parties are considered very progressive by international standards, as all abide by basic Populist dogma). All of these parties adhere to two key principles however, the social freedoms ensured by the First Bill of Rights, and the Economic rights ensured by the Second Bill of Rights.
The winner of the 2048 presidential election, Independent Jennifer Tracy, is the 51st U.S. president. The 2048 elections also saw the Democratic/Green coalition strengthen its control of both the House and the Senate. In the 131st United States Congress, the Senate comprises 29 Democrats and 24 Greenies who caucus together in a coalition government with 11 independents; 19 Republicans and the 5 independents that caucus with them; 17 Democrats and the 6 independents that caucus with them; and 9 non-coalition independent candidates.
- Amendment 1: Freedom of Speech, Religion, Press, Assembly, and Protest are Protected
- Amendment 2: Right to bear arms.
- Amendment 3: No quartering of soldiers in private homes.
- Amendment 4: No unwarranted search and seizures.
- Amendment 5: No double jeopardy, and ensures a trial by a jury, and rights of the accused.
- Amendment 6: Right to a speedy public trial with legal counsel.
- Amendment 7: Trial by jury for civil cases.
- Amendment 8: No cruel or unusual punishment, or excessive bail.
- Amendment 9: Any rights not mentioned are rights of the people.
- Amendment 10: Reserved Rights to the States.
- Amendment 11: Judicial separation of states and federal government.
- Amendment 12: Establishes the Vice President for a vote by the electoral college.
- Amendment 13: Abolishes Slavery.
- Amendment 14: States must abide by constitutional law, and defines anyone born in the US as a US citizen.
- Amendment 15: Former slaves can vote, and voters cannot be discriminated against based on race.
- Amendment 16: Income Tax.
- Amendment 17: Direct Election of Senators.
- Amendment 18: Prohibition
- Amendment 19: Women's right to vote.
- Amendment 20: Shortens lame duck period, and establishes VP as Presidential successor.
- Amendment 21: Repeals 18th Amendment.
- Amendment 22: 2 Presidential terms established as term limits.
- Amendment 23: DC gains presidential electors.
- Amendment 24: No taxes for voting.
- Amendment 25: Provides for temporary removal of President and temporary transfer of powers to VP.
- Amendment 26: 18 year old voting age (lowered to 16 in 2030).
- Amendment 27: Limits congressional pay raises.
- Amendment 28: Campaign Finance Amendment.
- Amendment 29: 16 year old voting age.
- Amendment 30: Right to a job with a living wage.
- Amendment 31: Freedom from unfair competition and monopolies.
- Amendment 32: Right to a home.
- Amendment 33: Universal Healthcare.
- Amendment 34: Universal Education.
- Amendment 35: Social Security.
- Amendment 36: Senators may only serve three, six-year terms, while presidents get only two, four-year terms.
- Amendment 37:Supreme Court Justices must undergo re-confirmation every 10 years.
- Amendment 38: Congressional vacancies shall be filled by a temporary appointee by a state governor followed by a special election if on an off election year.
Their are three significant sections of Amendments to the US Constitution, the Bill of Rights (Amendments 1-10); the Emancipation Amendments (Amendments 13, 14, and 15); and most recently the Second Bill of Rights (Amendments 29-34)
The United States has a Populist mixed economy, which is fueled by abundant natural resources, a well-developed infrastructure, high productivity, and the economic rights secured by the Second Bill of Rights. According to the International Monetary Fund, the U.S. GDP of $34.4 trillion constitutes 23% of the gross world product at market exchange rates and almost 21% of the gross world product at purchasing power parity (PPP).
Foreign Relations and MilitaryEdit
The United States exercises global economic, political, and military influence. It is a permanent member of the United Nations, a founding member of the Pacific Ocean Treaty Alliance, and New York City hosts the United Nations Headquarters. It is a member of the G20, and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Almost all countries have embassies in Washington, D.C., and many have consulates around the country. Likewise, nearly all nations host American diplomatic missions. However, the Gaddafi Caliphate, Zaire, and Sudan do not have formal diplomatic relations with the United States.
The United States enjoys strong ties with Russia, China, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, Korea, Indonesia, and Poland. It works closely with fellow POTA members on military and security issues and with its neighbors through free trade agreements such as the Central American Cooperation Treaty with Mexico and the rest of Central America.
The President holds the title of commander-in-chief of the nation's armed forces and appoints its leaders, the Secretary of Defense and the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The United States Department of Defense administers the armed forces, including the Navy, Marine Corps, the Air Force, and the Unified Commands. The Coast Guard is run by the Department of Homeland Security in peacetime and the Department of the Navy in time of war. During an international conflict where the US must engage in peace keeping activities, military personnel are ceded to POTA High Command, during internal conflicts on the Nation's borders, POTA member states do the opposite, ceding requested support for the country's own defense.
Military service is voluntary, conscription having been outlawed with the abolishment of the Selective Service System in 2025. American forces can be rapidly deployed by the Air Force's large fleet of transport aircraft, the Navy's thirteen active aircraft carriers, and Marine Expeditionary Units at sea with the Navy's Atlantic and Pacific fleets.
Total U.S. military spending is fluid, as national defense is provided internally, however the US pools additional funds for POTA and international conflicts. Of all the POTA nations, the US is often the most valued for their military experience over the last hundred years, as well as US Cyber Command, which is widely regarded as the most effective cyber warfare agency in the world.