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The first capacitor was the Leyden jar, a.k.a. the Leiden jar. This was discovered in 1745 by two scientists. They were Ewald Georg von Kleist and Pieter van Musschenbroek. The two scientists discovered the Leyden jar independently. Polish scientist and politician Daniel Graleth combined several jars together to increase to increase stored charge. Benjamin Franklin of the United States coined the term battery. Leyden jars continued to be used until the 1900s. The invention of the radio led to a new design of capacitor. This version used two conductors separated by an electrochemical dielectric. This was important for the computer revolution. In the early 21st century, capacitors were revolutionized. The ultracapacitor was born.
Tech Level: 10
Ultracapacitors used two layers of an electrolytic solution separated by a dielectric. These were actually layers of the same substrate. In more advanced versions, the electrolytic solution was held by carbon nanotubes. Ultracapacitors could store more energy than conventional capacitors but less energy than batteries at first. As ultracapacitors advanced, they would outcompete batteries in most applications. Ultracapacitors could release some or all of their stored energy at once. They could also be charged more quickly. Ultracapacitors were used alongside other power sources in cars and other vehicles. This reduced greenhouse gas emissions and increased efficiency. Some buses in China only used ultracapacitors. Ultracapacitors were also used in laser weapons and other advanced weapons. Any electronic device could last longer now.