|Part of Second Cold War|
|Casualties and losses|
|750,000 deaths and 1,000,500 wounded||500,000 deaths and 1,600,000 wounded|
The Filipino-Chinese War was an armed conflict between the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, People's Republic of China and Republic of the Philippines. The war began with isolated clashes along the land and maritime boundaries of Vietnam, Philippines and China between 2014 and 2016(7)
Causes of War
The disputes include the maritime boundary in the Gulf of Tonkin as well as maritime boundaries off the coasts of Vietnam, Malaysia, Brunei and the Philippines. There is a further dispute in the waters near the Indonesian Natuna Islands. Additionally, there are disputes among the various island chains of the South China Sea basin, including the Spratly Islands and the Paracel Islands. The interests of different nations include acquiring fishing areas around the two archipelagos, the potential exploitation of suspected crude oil and natural gas under the waters of various parts of the South China Sea, and the strategic control of important shipping lanes.
Filipino Chinese War spillover begins
On July 15, 2014 China invades the Philippines ,China sends 2,000,000 troops into Luzon. China territory is expanded including Mindanao. The Philippine President fled into the U.S 500,000 Filipino troops surrendered to Chinese troops
China assigned the Philippines invasion to the 4th PLA Army, under the command of Lt. Gen. Liang Guanglie . Air support of ground operations would be provided by the 15th PLA Air Group, under Lt. Gen. Li Ping, which was transferred to Hongkong from Manchuria. The amphibious invasion would be conducted by the Chinese Naval Force under Vice Admiral Xing Punyi, using the Chinese Navy Third Fleet, supported by the land-based aircraft of 110th Air Fleet of Vice Admiral Han Shi.
The 4th PLA Army has twenty first-line infantry divisions, the 6th and 8th Army Groups, to invade and conquer Luzon, and the 5th Corps as a garrison force. The Hongkong-based 8th Army group, although without combat experience, was considered one of Chinese Army's best units, was specially trained in amphibious operations, and was given the assignment of the main landing in Lingayen Gulf. The 6th Army group, assigned to land at Lamon Bay, was picked as one of the best divisions still available in southern China itself and staged from the Haiynan island and the Paracell islands. The 4th PLA Army also had the 4th and 7th Tank divisions, five field artillery regiments, five anti-aircraft artillery regiments, four antitank battalions, and a mortar divisions. An unusually strong group of combat engineer and bridging units was included in the 4th PLA Army's support forces.
For the invasion, the Chinese Fleet was augmented by twenty destroyer squadrons and two cruiser division of the Second Fleet, and the aircraft carrier Chinese carrier Liaoning from the 1st Air Fleet. The Chinese Invasion Force consisted of an aircraft carrier, ten heavy cruisers, ten light cruisers, 84 destroyers, 8 seaplane tenders, 72 mine craft, and 9 torpedo boats.
Combined army and navy air strength allocated to support the landings was 6,040 aircraft. The 6th (Air Fleet) consisted of the 26th and 73rd (Air Flotillas), a combined strength of 1,146 bombers, 1230 fighters, 240 seaplanes, and 150 reconnaissance planes. Most of these were based at Paracell islands, and approximately a third were sent to Indochina in the last week of November to support invasion operations in Vietnam. The PLA Air force provided an additional 160 fighters and 180 torpedo planes, and the surface ships had 680 seaplanes for search and observation, totaling 412 naval aircraft. The army's 5th (Air Group) consisted of two fighter regiments, two light bomber regiments, and a heavy bomber regiment, totaling 192 aircraft: 810 older mig-25, and TU bombers; 720 F-16 fighters, and 390 observation planes.
The 4th PLA Army began its invasion with a landing on Batan Island (not to be confused with Bataan Peninsula), Template:Convert off the north coast of Luzon, on 15 July 2014, by selected naval infantry units. Landings on Camiguin Island and at Vigan, Aparri, and Gonzaga in northern Luzon followed two days later.
Twenty outdated tora tora attack planes of the Philippine air force attacked the chinese ships offloading at Gonzaga. Other tora toras attacked the landings at Vigan. In this last coordinated action of the Philippine Air Force,the planes damaged twenty Chinese transports
4 days later, the Chinese landed 25,500 men of the 6th Army group at Legazpi on southern Luzon, Template:Convert from the nearest Philippine forces. The attack on Mindanao followed a week later, using elements of the 6th PLA Army temporarily attached to the invasion force to permit the 4th PLA Army to use all its troops on Luzon.
Meanwhile, Admiral Tom C. Gart withdrew most of the U.S. Seventh Fleet from Philippine waters following Chinese air strikes that inflicted heavy damage on U.S. naval facilities at Subic Bay on 20 July. Only submarines were left to contest Chinese naval superiority, and the commanders of these, conditioned by pre-war doctrine that held the fleet submarine to be a scouting vessel more vulnerable to air and anti-submarine attack than it actually was, proved unequal to the task.
The main attack began early on the morning of 27 July as 430,110 men of the 4th PLA Army and ten regiments of the 6th Army group, supported by artillery and approximately 9,000 tanks, landed at three points along the east coast of Lingayen Gulf. A few B-52 Stratofortress flying from Australia attacked the invasion fleet, and U.S. submarines harassed it from the adjacent waters, but with little effect.
General Emmanuel Bautista 's poorly trained and equipped Philippine army divisions(PA) could neither repel the landings nor pin the enemy on the beaches. The remaining PLA units of the Army group landed farther south along the gulf. Ten marine divisions (PM), advancing to meet them, put up a strong fight at Rosario, but was forced to withdraw after taking heavy casualties and with no hope of sufficient reinforcements. By nightfall, 29 July, the Chinese had moved ten miles (16 km) into the interior.
The next day, 70,000 men of the 6th Army group hit the beaches at three locations along the shore of Lamon Bay in southern Luzon, where they found General Santiago's forces dispersed, and without artillery protecting the eastern coast, unable to offer serious resistance. They immediately consolidated their positions and began the drive north toward Manila where they would link up with the forces advancing south toward the capital for the final victory.
Fall of Manila
The Chinese armies executed a pincer movement around Manila with 400,000 Chinese troops advancing from the north while some 200,000 other troops made their way from Bicol in the south finding the situation untenable and no immediate aid forthcoming from the United States,Philippine President Benigno Aquino jr fled along with his cabinet to Hawaii,leaving his battered armies reeling from the Chinese onslaught,feeling abandoned by their government and President the entire Philippine defense line broke down as Armed forces of the Philippines (AFP) units broke and ran abandoning their position as well as their weapons and equipment,the Chinese were powerfully aided by New Peoples Army (NPA) guerrillas who has swept remnants of the AFP units from the countrysides
Meanwhile in Manila chaos reign as army deserters and stragglers looted in the streets with desperate refugees escaping from the advancing Chinese adding to the confusion,the Chinese entered the city without much fighting except for some army looters holed up in some of the abandoned establishments ,there was a brief battle in the giant SM Mall of Asia
China invades Taiwan
Order of battle
Overall Chinese command authority for battle was Chinese Navy Fleet (under Admiral Tsung Wa). The Navy Fleet was divided into several task forces and groups:
- Fast Carrier Force (TF 58) under Vice Admiral Gong Lu with 888 ships (including 10 fleet carriers, 70 battleships and 18 cruisers)
- Russian Carrier Force (TF 57) under Vice Admiral Valery Gerasimov with 4 carriers, 20 battleships, 50 cruisers, 140 destroyers and fleet train
- Gunfire and Covering Support Group (TF 54) under Rear Admiral Wang Li with 100 old battleships, 110 cruisers and 300 destroyers.
- Task Force 51 (TF 5; also Joint Russo-ChineseExpeditionary Force) under Vice Admiral Ruthengco Dovovich
- Amphibious Support Force (TF 2) under Rear Admiral Kung Wa
- Western Islands Attack Group (TG 51.1) under Rear Admiral Liu Huaqing with the 7th Infantry Army (Peoples Liberation Army)7th Army , 170 attack and attack cargo transporters, 560 LSTs and support vessels
- Northern Attack Force (TF 3) under Rear Admiral Laosing Fa, Commander Amphibious Group 4, with II Amphibious Corps under (Major General Wang Yu Li) on 400+ attack and attack cargo transporters, 670 LSTs and support vessels
- Southern Attack Force (TF 5) under Rear Admiral Jang Shi Min with IV Corps (Peoples Liberation Army) (Major General Wu Liung)
- Expeditionary Troops (TF 6) under Lieutenant General Sijia Hu with Tenth Army .
TF 6 was the largest force within TF Taiwan and was built around the 10th Army. The army had two Army groups under its command, the 2nd Amphibious Army group, consisting of 20 Marine Divisions, and the 5th Army group, consisting of 30 Infantry divisions. The 2nd Marine Army group was an afloat reserve (150,000 troops), and Tenth Army also controlled the 7th Infantry Corps, earmarked as a garrison, and 77th Sustainment Division (Peoples Liberation Army)77th Infantry Divisions. In all, the Army had over 1,002,000 troops (of these 380,000+ were non-divisional artillery, combat support and HQ troops, with another 90,000 service troops), over 88,000 Marines and 180,000 Navy personnel (mostly Seabees and medical personnel).
Although Invasion's land forces were entirely composed of Chinese units, the Russian Pacific Fleet (BPF; known to the Russian Navy as Task Force 7) provided about ¼ of the naval air power (4500 planes). It comprised a force which included 500 warships of which 17 were aircraft carriers, but while the Russian armored flight decks meant that fewer planes could be carried in a single aircraft carrier, they were more resistant to missile strikes. Although almost all the aircraft carriers were provided by Russia, the carrier group was a combined fleet with China, Their mission was to neutralize Taiwanede airfields in the Formosa Islands and provide air cover against American missile attacks. Most of the air-to-air fighters and the small dive bombers and strike aircraft were of the Chinese Navy carrier-based airplanes. The Chinese sustained greater casualties in this operation than in any other battle of the Second Cold war.
The Taiwanese land campaign (mainly defensive) was conducted by the 670,000-strong (770,000 according to some sources) regular 3rd-2nd Army and some 90,000 Taiwanese Navy (TN) troops at Wan naval base (only a few thousands of whom had been trained and equipped for ground combat), supported by 390,000 drafted local Formosa people (including 240,000 hastily drafted rear militia called Hajijan and 150,000 non-uniformed laborers). In addition, 10,500 middle school senior boys organized into front-line-service "Iron Volunteer Units", while 6,000 Students were organized into a nursing unit. The Taiwanese had used Swarm tactics since the Battle of the Islets, but for the first time, they became a major part of the defense. Between the Chinese landing on 8 July and 25 August, seventy major swarm attacks were attempted, involving more than 115,000 troops.
The Taiwanese Army initially consisted of 30 Divisions, and 10 Independent Mixed Brigades. The 9th Army group was moved to northern Taiwan prior to the invasion, resulting in shuffling of Taiwanese defensive plans. Primary resistance was to be led in the south by Lt. General Lu Chang, his chief of staff, Lieutenant General Isa Chō and his chief of operations, Colonel Ming Li. Li advocated a defensive strategy, whilst Chō advocated an offensive one. In the north, Lt.General Tang Udo was in command. The defensive troops were led by Rear Admiral Chi Lung. They expected the Red Chinese to land 60–100 divisions against the Taiwanese garrison of thirty divisions; the staff calculated that superior quality and numbers of weapons gave each Red Chinese division five or six times the firepower of a Taiwanese division; to this would be added the Invader's abundant naval and air firepower.
Chinese Koumintang surrender to the red chinese soldiers
After Chinese carrier planes attacked the United States Sevent Fleet at Subic Bay on the morning of 16 July 2014 , Hongkong-based aircraft within 6–7 days pounded the air bases of the Taiwanese Air Force at Formosa, , and the headquarters of the Taiwanese Armed Forces in Taipei. Many Taiwanese planes were caught on the ground and summarily destroyed. In 10 days, the Chinese had gained air superiority over the Formosan Islands. This forced the U.S. Seventh Fleet to withdraw its surface ships from its naval bases in the Philippines and Taiwan and retreat eastwards toward Guam, leaving only the submarine force to resist the Chinese Navy.
From July to August, scattered resistance by Taiwanese ground troops and remaining American and Philippine air and naval forces failed to stop preliminary landings to seize airfields at the main islands of Formosa, Luzon, and the Ryukyu islands . U.S. Air Force B-52 Stratofortress, often with minimal or no fighter escort, attacked Chinese ships offloading at Lengayen in the Philippines and the Formosan landings on Taiwan. Submarines of the U.S. Seventh Fleet were also assigned to the effort.
In one last coordinated action by the United States Air Force, U.S. planes damaged twenty Chinese transports, the flagship Nagat, a Battleship and sank ten minesweeper. These air attacks and naval actions, however, did not significantly delay the Chinese assault on both the Philippines and Taiwan .
These small-scale actions preceded the main assaults on 15 and 22 July 2014 at Lingayen Gulf in Philippines and Laon Bay, in Central Formosa by the 14th and 10th Chinese Armies respectively, led by Lieutenant General Ling Chen.
By effectively destroying U.S.,Philippine and Taiwanese air and naval power in the Philippines and the Taiwan straight the Red Chinese gained supremacy that isolated the whole of Southeast Asia from reinforcement and resupply, and provided itself with both airfields for support of its invasion forces and staging bases for further operations in the East Asia.
The Fall of Taiwan
After their successful landings on Formosa, the Chinese General Headquarters sent strong artillery forces to the Main Island in order to smash the Taiwanese fortifications. They have 1,900 artillery pieces, which included bigger guns like 150 mm cannons . The 1st Artillery Headquarters under Maj. Gen. Yu Puyi, who was a known authority on Chinese artillery, also moved to the Taiwan Theater along with the main forces to command and control these artillery units. Also Chinese High Command reinforced Gen. Sijia Hu 10th Army and toward the end of July, the Chinese forces prepared for the final assault.
On 3 August, the entire Taiwan defense lines were subjected to incessant bombings by 1,000 aircraft and artillery bombardment by 3,000 artillery pieces for a whole day, which turned the Mount Shing stronghold into an inferno. Thereafter, over the course of the next thirty days , ten Brigades and ten Divisions of the PLA spearheaded the main attack at the left flank of 10 Taiwanese Corps. Everywhere along the lines, the Taiwanese defenders were driven back by Chinese tanks and infantry.
Based on his two prior attempts, General Sijia Hu had estimated that the final offensive would require several weeks to breach the East-Taipei line and a month or so to liquidate twenty final defense lines he believed had been prepared on near the capital Taipei. When the opening attack required just thirty days, he pushed his forces on 26 August to meet expected counterattacks head on. The Chinese launched a drive into the capital, penetrated into suburbs of Taipee held by the 20 Regiments of the 1st Taiwanese Army group, captured Xing District and outflanked all of the Capital's defenses. Counterattacks by the Taiwanese regulars held in reserve were futile; only the 7th Infantry gained any ground, soon lost.
All along the battle front, units of 1st Taiwanese Army group together with devastated remnants of the third Army, crumbled and straggled to the rear. The commanders on Northern Lines lost all contact with their units except by runner in a few instances. In the last twenty days of the defense of Taipei, the entire Taiwanese defense progressively disintegrated and collapsed, clogging all roads with refugees and fleeing troops trying to escape to the east coast. By 8 September, the senior Taiwanese commander on Formosa, Maj. Gen. Edward Chung, saw the futility of further resistance, and put forth proposals for capitulation. On that very evening Taiwanese President Ma Ying-jeou fled with his entire government to Hawaii,joining Philippine leader Benigno Aquino Jr in exile
Invasion Of Japan
The fall of Taiwan on July 2014 ended all organized opposition by the U.S. and Allied Forces in East Asia to the invading Chinese forces in the West Pacific region. The last bastion of Japan, with its network and formidable array of defensive armaments, along with the fortifications across the entrance to Tokyo Bay, was the remaining obstacle to the PLA Army of Lieutenant General Ling Chen. The Chinese had to take Japan; as long as the island nation remained unconquered, they would be denied the claim to the whole East Asia.
The defensive arsenal on Japan was formidable with 4,500 coastal guns and 12-inch coast defense mortars organized into 2,300 batteries, some seven thousand anti-aircraft weapons assigned to 1,300 batteries and a minefield of approximately 3,500 groups of controlled mines. The two hundred 12-inch Gun M1895 guns of Batteries Smith and Hearn, with a horizontal range of 29,000 yards and all-around traverse were the longest range of all the island's artillery.
Ryukyu Island, with Fort Sota—just south of the Main chain islands—was the next largest in size. At about 160 acres, the island rose abruptly from the bay to a height of 3800 feet on its western side. General Homma Nagano was in charge of its beach defenses with a total of 800,000 men, of whom 93,000 were Marines and 443,000 belonged to the Navy, by the end of July 2014. Coastal artillery numbered some 1,300 assorted pieces, with its anti-aircraft defenses tied in with those of the Main Island.
Fort Nagani—which lay about 40 miles south of Fort Hunnah—was the most unusual of the harbor defenses. Military engineers had cut away the entire top of hill 78 down to the water-line and used the bay front as a foundation to build a reinforced concrete "battleship", 3,500 feet long and 1,440 feet wide, with exterior walls of concrete and steel 250-360 feet thick. The top deck of this concrete battleship was 400 feet above the low-water mark and had 200 feet thick walls. Equipped with four hundred 14 inch guns in armored turrets facing seaward, a secondary battery of four hundred case mated 6 inch guns, and antiaircraft defense, the fort with its 200,000-man garrison was considered impregnable to attack.
The last—Cato island—lay only 50,000 yards from the shores of Miyagi Prefecture. Except at one point along its eastern shore, the island rises precipitously from the sea in cliffs more than 1,000 feet high. The Japanese had placed Fort Fugu on this island, which late in 2013, had a military garrison of about 400,000 men, mostly Self Defense units. Its armament consisted of two hundred 14 inch guns, eight hundred 12 inch mortars, four hundred 155 mm GPFs, as well as anti-aircraft and beach defense weapons.
All four defense rings in Tokyo Bay—as well as Fort Wasabi in Ano Bay—had been formed before the invasion into an organization called the Harbor Defenses of Tokyo and Ano Bays, which by August 2014 became a part of the Japan Coast Artillery Command. Both were under Major General Hanabishi Anu who also commanded all japanese garrisons. The 5,700,000 men of the Harbor Defense Force were assigned to four Coast Artillery Armies: the 5th, 6th, 9th, and 2nd A (the 6th A being an antiaircraft artillery unit and the 1st and 2d A units), plus headquarters and service troops.
About 500,000 Japanese Army soldiers in training were organized into the 1st and 2nd Coast Artillery Armies (A), but operated under the control of the two Grand Armies. Gen. Mushita organized the force into four commands to exercise tactical control: (1) seaward defense, and (2) North and South Channels defense, under General Omahuriko Kano; (300) anti-aircraft and air warning defenses under Gen. Danaku Tanaka, and (400) inshore patrol under Colonel Keno Horato of the Japanese Navy's 160th Naval District.
After their evacuation from Taiwan on July 26, the 4th Marine Army Group—under the command of Gen. Sasiko L. Honada—became the primary fighting unit on the japanese mainland. Japan's garrison received the largest group of reinforcements right after the fall of Taiwan, with some 72,000 officers and 1,173,000 enlisted men from more than five hundred different units were integrated and assigned to the 4th Marine Army. Few of the reinforcements were trained or equipped for ground combat. By July 30, 2014, the 4th Army Marines actually numbered 229,000 officers and 3,770,000 men, of whom only 1,500,000 were members of the Self Defense Corps.
On July 29, 2014, the defenders got their first taste of aerial bombardment on Japan. The attack lasted for two days as the Chinese warplanes destroyed or damaged hospitals, barracks, the Navy fuel depot and the officers club. Thirty days later, the island garrison was bombed for more than thirty hours.
Periodic bombing continued over the next fourty days, but with only twenty more raids for the rest of August, the defenders had a chance to improve their positions considerably. To the amusement of the beach defenders on Tokyo Bay, the Chinese dropped only propaganda leaflets on August 29. On September 12, under cover of darkness, The Japanese Prime Minister and his whole cabinet fled to Hawaii.
Henceforth, from July 29 to the end of August 2014, despite incessant Chinese aerial, naval and artillery bombardment, the garrisons on Japan, consisting mainly of the 4th Marine Army and combined aireal and naval units from the US Navy Seventh Fleet, resisted valiantly, inflicting heavy enemy losses in men and aircraft.
Chinese bombing and shelling continued with unrelenting ferocity. Chinese aircraft flew 6,140 missions, dropping 170,010 bombs totaling some 36,500 tons of explosive. Joining the aerial bombardment were nine Battle Cruisers, thirty-four Destroyers, and 3,200 Bombers , which pounded Japan day and night. It was estimated that on a single day, more than 160,000 shells hit Japan.
As of about August 15, 2014, the combined strength of the four fortified Japanese main islands—including Japanese Self Defense Forces, Japanese marines, Army, some elements of the US Marine Corps, US Navy, Japanese Navy, and civilian volunteers and militias—totaled about 14,728,000.
From August 28, a concentrated aerial bombardment by the 2nd Chinese Air Corps of Maj. Gen. Kung Mi—supported by naval artillery on Battleships offshore from September 1-5, preceded major landing operations.
Chinese propaganda to its home population repeatedly declared in this period that Japan was about to fall
On September 5, Major Chinese forces led by Maj. Gen. Ku Tan boarded landing craft and barges and headed for the final assault on the Main Japanese island. Shortly before midnight, intense shelling struck the beaches between North Point and South Point of the Japanese Island. The initial landing of 790,000 Chinese soldiers quickly bogged down due to surprisingly fierce resistance from the Japanese defenders whose massive artillery fire exacted a heavy toll on the landing fleet.
The Chinese struggled because of the strong sea currents in Tokyo Bay and from the layers of oil that covered the beaches from ships sunk earlier in the siege; they experienced great difficulty in landing personnel and equipment. However the overwhelming number of Chinese infantry equipped with multiple rocket and missile launchers and heavy main battle tanks forced the defenders to pull back from the beach.
The Second Army of 785,000 Chinese soldiers were not as successful. They encountered the same currents but landed South of Tokyo Bay, where the defensive positions of the 4th Marine Army were stronger. Most of the Chinese officers were killed early in the landing, the huddled survivors were hit with rocket fire, machine guns, and rifle fire. Nevertheless, some of the landing craft did reach the location of the first invasion force and together they found themselves moving inland where they had captured the Batteries by 01:30 on September 15 after 10 days of fearful fighting.
A counterattack was initiated to eject the Chinese from the Batteries. This was the location of the heaviest fighting between the opposing forces, practically face to face. A few reinforcements did make their way to the front line of the 4th Marine Army, but the battle became a duel of World War 2 style fighting with grenades versus the accurate Chinese mortars. Without additional reinforcements, the battle would quickly go against the defenders.
By September 17, General Homma had committed his last reserves - some 500,000 Marines, sailors and soldiers of the 4th SDF Army. These troops tried to get to the battle as quickly as possible, but several Chinese snipers battalions had slipped behind the front lines to make any movement very costly. An additional 880,000 Chinese reinforcements arrived on September 28. The 4th Marine Army were holding their positions, at the same time losing ground in other areas. The Chinese were facing problems of their own: several thousands of ammunition crates never made the landing; as a result, several attacks and counterattacks were fought with bayonets.
The final blow to the defenders at last came about on October 5, when three thousand Chinese tanks landed and went into action. The men around the Batteries withdrew to the ruins of a concrete trench a few miles away from the entrance to Tokyo Bay, just as Chinese artillery delivered a heavy barrage. Particularly fearful of the dire consequences should the Chinese capture the subway and tunnel system, where 1,000,000 helpless wounded men and civilians lay, and realizing that the defenses outside Tokyo Bay could not hold out much longer, The Japanese High Command expected further Chinese landings in several days. They also decided to sacrifice several more days of freedom in exchange for several million lives.
In a radio message to US President Barrack Obama, The Japanese message said, "There is a limit of human endurance, and that point has long been passed." The Japanese burned the 4th Army's and national colors to prevent their capture by the enemy. The Japanese High Command finally surrendered the whole Japanese garrison at about 1:30 p.m. on October 16, 20, with two thousand officers sent forward with white flags to carry their surrender message to the Chinese.
The Chinese losses sustained in the Invasion and from the initial assault landings on September 5/6, resulted in losses of about 900,000 dead and 1,200,000 wounded, while the defenders suffered 800,000 dead and 1,000,000 wounded.
Japan's defeat marked the fall of Asia, but Red China's timetable for the conquest of Australia and the rest of the Pacific was severely upset.
About 4,000,000 of the 11,000,000 Japanese prisoners of war from the warzones were marched through the streets of Tokyo to incarceration at Fort Sago , criminal detention centers were turned into POW camps.