Quantum computers are computers that exploit quantum phenomona. They were considered the ultimate computer by all of humanity.
Replacements for silicon
Many replacements for silicon were around before quantum computers entered the mainstream. Here is a list:
- Tri-Gate Transistors: Tri-Gate Transistors were an idea that Intel pioneered in 2012. These transistors were three-dimensional allowing power comsumption to be reduced by 50% and data speed to be increased by 37%. This allowed Moore's Law to continue another decade.
- Carbon Nanotube Transistors: Carbon nanotubes were one of two replacements for silicon in transistors, along with graphene. One of the specifications in Geronimo III during World War III called for carbon nanotube transistors to be used. Scientists hired for the project had to solve issues with carbon nanotubes. They solved them with polymers, multiple layers, and new mass production techniques.
- Graphene Transistors: Graphene was one of two replacements for silicon in transistors, along with transistors. Graphene transistors were used in Geronimo III to complement the carbon nanotube transistors also in use. Scientists solved the same problems as carbon nanotubes with the same solutions.
- Memristors: Memristors were an innovation pioneered by Hewlett-Packard in 2013. They replaced silicon transistors primarily for memory.
- Photonics: The transition from electronics to photonics came during World War III. Geronimo III specified that tiny lasers be etched into some of the bi-layer graphene transistors. This was difficult, but the scientists involved did find a way to do it.
- Plasmonics: In the same manner as photonics, plasmonics came into the Geronimo III through bi-layer graphene transistors. Like the photons, the plasmons situated in between the layers.
- DNA Computers: DNA computing never entered consumer devices, but it was one important part of Geronimo II. It was used to help in the cloning process during World War III.
- Spintronics: Spintronics uses the spin of the electron in addition to its charge. It was first used in memristors. It later became one of the technologies used in quantum computers.
Quantum Computers, themselves
The main problem with quantum computers was decoherence. Until 2011, the record for a quantum computer was 3X5=15. In 2011, the D-Wave One overcame this problem through quantum annealing. It was the first step toward quantum computers. D-Wave One could do even more complex calculations than quantum computers of the past. Lockheed Martin used it. D-Wave One solved the Miyazawa-Jernigan model problem in 2012. However, more work was needed before quantum computers could enter the mainstream.
After World War III, scientists started applying quantum gravity to quantum computers. The result was a quantum computer in which quantum decoherence was not a problem. A revolution began that led to reverse engineering the brain and, later, artificial sentience.