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The other routes to Nanotechnology are more likely to lead in the short term to custom products and not to general purpose manufacture.

  • The bottom up route, using Biotechnology, is constrained by being adaptations of existing naturally occuring protein and enzymes and our custom derivatives.
  • The third route via Lithography, leveraging the photographic-reduction process used in modern chip manufacture to produce micro machines (SEMS), is also less likely to lead to a general purpose Nanofactory. The reason is that that technology is planar, and silicon based. Moving to 3D and other non silicon-like materials is very hard.


See also

Cost-performance ratio, helping nanofactories to drive down the cost of goods to almost nothing

This is a factual article as opposed to fiction or scenario. It describes the current state of the field and explains expected future developments without speculation or fantasy.

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