Cybernetic implants (also known as cyberware) would be inserted into the brain to replace or repair faulty sections of the brain. Healthy people—both adults and children—might also choose the undergo surgery for the purpose of enhancement or entertainment, such as obtaining a bionic eye with a zoom function, or a different type of iris (much like the effects of contacts already available), or even something as drastic as a fully cybernetic body (an android 'shell').
Timeline: 2020 +
Genetic engineering to correct genetic problems and to augment normal human abilities would have to be done before a child is born. Adult brains would have already formed connections based on the undesired DNA. However, in adults, genetic engineering could help the brain produce chemicals it is lacking (leading to a cure for most non-genetic mental problems) and it would help improve the brains ability to form new neural connections.
These enhancements could spare millions of people afflicted with problems like Down syndrome, Alzheimer's, and other genetic diseases that affect mental capabilities. Augmenting the brain could lead to vastly enhanced memory, intelligence, problem solving, spacial awareness and a person's ability to communicate with computer systems.
It would also allow people with Down syndrome to live completely on their own without the need for group homes, associations for community living, or assisted living arrangements.
Usually, it takes people with Down syndrome years longer than normal people to learn life skills. However, the mental enhancements would work by making the brain remember information quicker, causing the minds in question to think faster, remember more, and concentrate harder. Eventually, with this technology, special education classes in public school will be eliminated, and all students will be mainstreamed into the regular system.