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Masdar City was a project in Abu Dhabi which involved the construction of a city that ran only on renewable energy, especially solar power. This helped the environmentalists a lot.
(Note: The background section of this page uses most of the same words as Terra Futura's page on photovoltaics to save time.)
The photovoltaic effect was discovered in 1839 by French physicist, Alexandre-Edmond Becquerel, the father of the guy who discovered radioactivity. This was followed in 1887 by the discovery of the photoelectric effect by Heinrich Hertz, an ethnically half-Jewish, half-German Lutheran physicist. Then, in 1905, Jewish physicist Albert Einstein discovered that light was made of particles called photons. The first semiconductor solar cell was produced in 1946 by Russell Ohl who would become one of the inventors of the transistor. The first practical photovoltaic cells were created by Bell Labs in 1954. In 1958, solar cells started being used on spacecraft. Soon, solar cells would become cheaper.
In the late 1960s, a scientist named Elliot Berman invented a new process for producing silicon solar panels in a ribbon. He started working at Exxon to make improvements. By the end of the 20th century, solar panels were commonplace. It was now possible to incorporate them into roofs of houses. Polycrystalline silicon was by now the most common material for solar panels. There was one problem. Polycrystalline silicon had to be pure. This made them expensive. During the second decade of the 21st century, they were replaced with thin-film solar panels which could disappear into windows, cell phones, television, etc. This made solar power commonplace. This was important as Masdar City would soon be finished.
Tech Level: 10
The first phase of the Masdar City project was completed in 2015. This was the world's first carbon-neutral, zero-waste, and fully sustainable city. It ran on a multitude of clean energies. These included the largest solar power plant in the Middle East, rooftop photovoltaics, wind farms, a geothermal power plant, and a hydrogen power plant. A desalination plant provided water for the city. There were also extensive recycling systems. These were solar-powered. Automobiles were not allowed. Instead, mass transit and personal rapid transit dominated the roads. It had a university, an institute of science and technology, and was the headquarters of the International Renewable Energy Agency. Vertical farms provided food the people that lived there. By 2025, Masdar City was completed. As the 21st century continued, cities like Masdar City dominated the Middle East. Even a reconstruction of Jerusalem by the nations of Israel and Palestine, which were in a personal union to maintain stability, complete with a new Holy Temple was just like Masdar City. As solar power started coming from space, these cities would adapt.