|| Iran and allies
The Iran War, also known as the 2. Persian Gulf War or the Hormuz War, was a conflict that occurred in the Persian Gulf and mainland Iran. It started as a result of the Western sanctions on Iran's controversial nuclear program and the Iranian blockade of the Hormuz Strait.
Since 2006, the United States, the European Union and others, imposed various sanctions against Iran, including restrictions on cooperation, oil-, economic- and weapon embargo and travel bans. The sanctions were imposed, due to the belief that Iran was developing nuclear weapons. However, Iran said that the purpose of their nuclear program was to provide energy for the region.
In 2011, the West restricted the sanctions against Iran. Iran corresponded by attacking the British embassy in Iran in late November, and shooting down an American drone in early December.
At the end of 2011, Iran threathened the whole world: If the sanctions were resticted more, they could easily shut down the Hormuz Strait! The Hormuz Strait is the strait that links the Persian Gulf with the Indian Ocean, and about a third of all oil shipped by sea worldwide, passed throught the strait at that time. Shutting down the strait would be disastrous for the world economy, causing oil prices to skyrocket.
Iran exercised its military in the Persian Gulf multiple times, to show the West that they were ready for a blockade. Right after the Iranian threath, the United States warned, that if the strait was shut down, the US Fifth Fleet was ready to attack! Some days later, the United States sold 84 F-15 fighter jets to Saudi Arabia.
The West ignored the Iranian threat, and restricted the sanctions more multiple times, without realizing what it could lead to.
On Friday, July 13, the news of Iran laying mines in and near the Hormuz Strait, hit the world. Iran said, that any ship trying to pass through the Hormuz Strait, would be attacked with anti-ship missiles.
The United States responded the act the same day, saying that if Iran hadn't stopped the blockade before Monday, the US Fifth Fleet would open the strait itself!
Many nations across the world supported the United States in its response, forming a coalition: Canada, the European Union, Israel , the Arab League with the strong US-ally Saudi Arabia in the lead, Turkey, Japan , South Korea, Australia and most other allies of the West.
Afghanistan joined the Coalition, mainly due to the strained relations with Iran, but also due to the American support to the Karzai-regime. Iran had toughened immigration policy, Afghans in Iran were hanged, and in 2010/2011, Iran cut off electricity to the Nimroz Province, after Afghan and Iranian security forces fought in the province. Afghanistan also had good relations with the United States, who led the Western invasion of Afghanistan during the Taliban-administration.
Supporters of IranEdit
China wasn’t happy with the blockade. 50% of China’s oil passed through the Hormuz Strait, so it would affect the Chinese economy. But along with Russia, China wouldn’t support what they called “another war in a foreign country, led by the United States”. They urged the West to negotiate with Iran to open the strait. However, both China and Russia supported Iran with weapons and machinery during the war, but without declaring war on the Coalition.
Venezuela was probably the greatest supporter of Iran during the war. Venezuela was, like Iran, a great opponent of the West and was a very anti-capitalistic country. In the Battle of Tabriz, which killed more than 370 coalitional soldiers, Venezuela helped Iran by dropping bombs. Cuba and Bolivia also supported Iran during the war, as they were also very anti-capitalistic and close allies of Venezuela and Iran, although Bolivia later stopped supporting them.
North Korea was also a major ally of Iran during the war. North Korea was a communist and very anti-capitalistic country, while its neighbour, South Korea, was highly industrialized and a Western country. A peace treaty was never signed between them, which caused North Korea to be the ally of countries such as Iran, Venezuela and Cuba.
Other nations, including Iraq, Algeria and Indonesia, had previously declared their support to Iran in the US-Iran standoff, but supported the Coalition when the war began. Many countries also supported Iran's right to develop nuclear energy, but evidence later showed that Iran tried to develop nuclear weapons.
Various Shi'ite groups, including Hezbollah and Houthis, declared their support to Iran in the war against "the imperialistic Americans and Israelites, and the Arab traitors". Most Shi'ite groups of Lebanon, Iraq, Kuwait, Bahrain, Yemen and Saudi Arabia supported Iran in the war.
Many people in the west protested against the war with slogans like "NO MORE WARS", "STOP THE WAR BEFORE IT STARTS" and "LEAVE IRAN ALONE".
The war beginsEdit
Battle of HormuzEditOn Monday, July 16, when Iran still hadn't stopped the blockade of the Hormuz Strait, Barrack Obama, president of the United States, signed a declaration of war on Iran and their allies. The rest of the Coalition followed, declaring war the same day. Iran responded by declaring war on the coalition along with its allies Venezuela, Cuba, North Korea and Bolivia.
When the US Fifth Fleet arived at the Hormuz Strait, along with British, French, Australian and Saudi Arabian ships, Iran had prepared for battle. Iran shot missiles at the coalitional ships, and some were destroyed. A US-ship shot a missile hitting the largest Iranian ship, while the others sank the rest.
The battle lasted a couple of hours and ended with a massive coalitional victory, and the strait was now open again. More than 120 people were killed during the battle and many were injured. However, the war was far from over.
Invasion of Coastal IranEdit
Invasion of Hormozgan and the Battle of Bandar AbbasEdit
The Coalition prepared for an attack on the strategic city of Bandar Abbas, Hormozgan, lying at the coast. On Friday, July 20, American soldiers arrived in Bandar Abbas in attack helicopters. They quickly surrounded the city and fought with the security forces and some civil protesters in 2 days.
About 80 people were killed in the battle that ended with coalitional victory and the occupation of the Hormozgan Province. Now the Strait of Hormuz was fully administrated by the Coalition and the oil could pass through without insecurity.
Invasion- and Battle of BushehrEdit
On Saturday, July 21, with Hormozgan occupied, the Coalition could move on to the next coastal province, the Bushehr Province. Bushehr, the largest city in the province was lying at the coast, and the Coalition was heading for it. American helicopters landed at the beach and the soldiers quickly surrounded the city. Within hours the province was under coalitional administration.
Invasion of Fars and the Battle of ShirazEdit
On Sunday, July 22, with much of the coast occupied, the Coalition was now heading for the Fars Province and its largest city, Shiraz. The soldiers entered Fars from Hormozgan and slowly moved northwest deeper into the province. When the troops entered the city of Shiraz, they were met with massive Iranian force and more than 100 soldiers were killed. The battle lasted for about a week and ended with Iranian victory, however, the Coalition had occupied the southern parts of the Fars Province.
Bombings of nuclear facilities and military installationsEdit
From July 30 to around August 14, the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Turkey, Israel, Saudi Arabia and other nations, dropped multiple bombs by plane over nuclear facilities in Iran. The main targets were the nuclear power plant of Bushehr, the uranium enrichment facilities of Natanz and Fordow, the uranium conversion facility of Isfahan, and the heavy water plant of Arak. Some major military installations were also bombed.
Now that these facilities were destroyed, Iran couldn't make nuclear weapons. The bombings also caused government-arranged protests against the United States, in the Iranian capital of Tehran.
Invasion of Khorasan and the Battle of MashhadEdit
The NATO-ISAF forces, including American, British, French, Italian, German, Spanish, Turkish and Afghan troops, met in Camp Bastion, Helmand Province, Afghanistan. Afghanistan was a very strategic nation, as it neighboured Iran.
On Monday, August 6, the NATO-ISAF forces left their bases in Afghanistan. The goal was to weaken Iran by occupying the provinces in the Khorasan area and capturing the city of Mashhad, Razavi Khorasan, Iran's second largest city. The Coaltion would also prevent Iran from escaping into Afghanistan. The troops were met with massive force by the Iranian security forces and army in the city of Mashhad, and the battle was very bloody.
The Battle of Mashhad lasted for about a week and more than 150 people were killed. It ended with Iranian victory, but the coalitional forces weren't far away, and had occupied South Khorasan and parts of Razavi Khorasan.
Middle Eastern Terror CampaignEdit
On Wednesday, August 8, car bombs exploded in several major Middle Eastern cities. The targets were primarily Western and Sunni Islamic buildings and areas.
The terror campaign should:
- Help the Shi'ite groups to get control of their respective countries.
- Threaten countries involved in the conflict.
- Generally help Iran and their allies to gain ground in Iran, Iraq, Yemen and other countries.
Hezbollah claimed the responsibility for most attacks, but Houthis claimed the responsibility for the most deadly bombings, the ones in Yemen.
a = Beirut, Lebanon
b = Baghdad, Iraq
c = Kuwait City, Kuwait
d = Manama, Bahrain
e = Sana'a, Yemen
f = Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
g = Jerusalem, Israel
h = Ankara, Turkey
- In Beirut, Lebanon, a car bomb exploded and killed 17 people. This terror act should help Hezbollah to get control of the country.
- In Baghdad, Iraq, car bombs exploded at the American embassy and other sites in the Green Zone. 43 people were killed.
- In Kuwait City, Kuwait, a car bomb exploded and killed 11 people.
- In Manama, Bahrain, a car bomb exploded and killed 14 people.
- In Sana'a, Yemen, car bombs exploded at the American embassy, the governmental building, and in a Sunni neighbourhood. 64 people were killed. This terror act should help Houthis to get control of the country, so they could overthrow the Sunni Islamic government.
- In Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, a car bomb exploded and killed 8 people.
- In Jerusalem, Israel, a car bomb exploded and killed 13 people
- In Ankara, Turkey, a terror attack was prevented, and no one was hurt.
In all, 170 people were killed that day.
August Invasion of Northwestern Iran and the Battle of TabrizEditOn Monday, August 20, the coalitional forces launched an invasion of northwestern Iran. The plan was to send troops and tanks into Iranian Kurdistan from Iraq and into Iranian Azerbaijan from Turkey, and then reach the city of Tabriz. The coalition believed that any hidden nuclear weapons were most likely to be in this area of Iran, and if they could occupy this area, Iran would be nearly surrounded.
When the coalitional forces were about to enter the city of Tabriz, Iran's fourth largest city, a large group of Iranian troops and tanks, supported from above by Venezuelan planes dropping bombs at the troops, appeared. Suddenly, they were also attacked from behind by Azerbaijani soldiers and Islamists. It was an ambush! Iran had convinced many people and soldiers of Azerbaijan that their president Ilham Aliyev supported the "imperialists", and that he was forming Azerbaijan into an American colony. The government was overthrown and a new one was established. The Islamic Party of Azerbaijan, which got financial support from Iran, became un-banned, and their leader Movsum Samadov became the new president, while Ilham Aliyev was jailed.
The Battle of Tabriz, which lasted for about a week, was a massacre, and more than 250 coaltional soldiers were killed by Iran and its allies. The invasion of Iranian Azerbaijan had failed, and Iran still had full control of the region, including the Van Province of Turkey, which they now had occupied.
Reactions to the Battle of TabrizEdit
The Coalition wouldn't tolerate such a massacre, and called for more nations to support the invasion of Iran. At the same time, it was confirmed that the terror attacks in several Middle Eastern cities, were strongly supported by Iran. Many countries then joined the Coalition, including all countries involved in the War on Terror: Ukraine, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Armenia, Georgia, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Mongolia, Thailand, Malaysia, the Philippines, Bangladesh, Yemen, Ethiopia and Kenya. Other major countries joining were Mexico, Brazil, South Africa and India.
Russia and China criticizes IranEdit
Following the massacre, Russia and China expressed condolence to the many lives lost, and urged Iran to stop its violation of international law, in form of the occupation of the Turkish Van Province, their support to the terrorist attacks in several Middle Eastern cities, and the Islamist-led coup d'état in Azerbaijan. Russia and China also expressed their worry to the situation in the region, and said that the West and their allies should abandon the invasion to reinsure stability in the region. As a result of the lack of support from Russia and China, Iran was weakened, and the West and their allies, now with more supporters, could keep on.
American passenger-plane issueEdit
On Tuesday, August 21, an American passenger-plane crashed in the Strait of Hormuz after being shot down by an Iranian air-fighter. The plane was flying from New York, United States to Dubai, United Arab Emirates, and had to fly over the Strait of Hormuz. Onboard were 250 passengers and crew members, and they were all killed in the crash.
From this day, Bolivia, China, and Russia were no longer allies of Iran and the country was extremely weakened. Bolivia, China, and Russia expressed condolence to the lives lost and to the families of them, and said that killing innocent civilians would not be accepted. Iran had lost 2 major allies and was extremely weakened. Bolivia, China, and Russia also expelled the Iranian ambassadors.
The September Invasion of Northwestern IranEdit
On Thursday, September 4, the Coalition, now including nations such as Mexico, Brazil, South Africa and India, launched a new massive invasion of northwestern Iran. Heavy-armed soldiers went from Iraq and Turkey into northwestern Iran, supported by tanks, while air-fighters and helicopters headed for the largest cities in the region. Within short time, the coalition had created a line between the 4 large cities of Kermanshah, Hamadan, Qazvin and Rasht, known as the AFL (the Azeri Frontline). The invasion caused riots in some cities, and few military camps experienced explosions nearby. More than 80 people were killed during the invasion, which ended with massive coalitional victory.
A few days after the occupation of northwestern Iran, the Coalition found nuclear weapons buried underground near the largest cities in the region. This was real evidence that Iran wasn’t developing nuclear power, but nuclear weapons as the West thought to begin with.
Operation Enduring Freedom - Azerbaijan (OEF-AZ)Edit
Also on September 4, the Coalition launched Operation Enduring Freedom – Azerbaijan, abbreviated OEF-AZ. Since no countries other than Iran recognized the new government of Azerbaijan, OEF-AZ was the first operation supported by the United Nations, including Russia and China. Supported by air-fighters bombing military facilities, coalitional soldiers entered Azerbaijan from all sides, heading for the capital of Baku. The president of Azerbaijan, Movsum Samadov, escaped and received exile somewhere in Iran, while the soldiers, who overthrew president Aliyev, fought the Coalition. The Coalition however, reached Baku very fast, and Azerbaijan’s military couldn’t do anything to stop them. The Samadov-regime was overthrown, and a new government was inserted by the Coalition. Russia and China acknowledged the overthrow of the Samadov-regime, since it was done as a result of the Iranian intervention in Azerbaijan.
On September 7, a car bomb exploded in Baku, killing 13 people. The Islamic Party of Azerbaijan was responsible for the terrorist attack, which also was supported by Iran.
Invasion of Eastern Iran and the Battle of YazdEdit
On September 14, the coalition launched a massive invasion of eastern Iran. The plan was to finish the invasion of Khorasan, then enter Baluchistan from Pakistan and occupy it, occupy Kerman and then reach the city of Yazd in Central Iran.
The Coalition broke the line of control in Razavi Khorasan and headed for the city of Mashhad. Following the battle, which ended with a massive coalitional victory, the rest of Khorasan and also Golestan was captured. In Pakistan, near the Afghan border, the Coalition prepared their attack on the city of Zahedan in Baluchistan. The troops left their base in Pakistan and within short time, the city was under coalitional administration. The next goal was to reach the city of Kerman in the central parts of the Kerman Province. With Khorasan, Baluchistan and Bandar Abbas captured, the Coalition could enter Kerman from north, east and south, and the Battle of Kerman ended with a massive coalitional victory.
The final goal in the invasion of eastern Iran was to reach the city of Yazd in the Yazd Province in Central Iran and create a new line of control. The troops entered the province from the occupied areas of Khorasan and Kerman. In Yazd, the Coalition was met by a large group of Iranian soldiers and tanks, supported from above by Venezuelan and Cuban planes. The Battle of Yazd ended with a coalitional victory after a week, but more than 200, both Iranian and coalitional soldiers had died during the battle. The Coalition had now fulfilled its goal and had captured most of eastern Iran in less than 4 weeks. They later found nuclear weapons burried underground like the ones in Northwestern Iran.
Invasion of South-Central IranEdit
On October 9, the Coalition launched an invasion of south-central Iran. The plan was to finish the invasion of the Fars Province, occupy the southwestern provinces near the Iraqi border and the Persian Gulf, and then occupy the provinces of Isfahan and Semnan. They would now have free access to Tehran and the surrounding provinces.
The Coalition headed for the city of Shiraz in the Fars Province, and after the battle, which ended with a massive Coalitional victory, they could occupy the rest of Fars. At the same time, the Coalition entered the Khuzestan Province from Bushehr and a base near the Iran-Iraq border, while coalitional ships attacked cities at the coast. After the occupation of Khuzestan, the Coalition could move on to the provinces of Chaharmahal & Bakhtiari, Kohgiluyeh & Buyer-Ahmad and Lorestan, which they occupied within short time. The remains of Iran were now completely surrounded by the Coalition and the next battles would be very bloody.
On October 14, coalitional troops and tanks entered the city of Isfahan in the Isfahan Province. They were met by a large group of Iranian troops and tanks, supported from above by Venezuelan and Cuban planes and by local anti-Capitalists. The Battle of Isfahan was very bloody and more than 140 died on both sides during the battle, which ended with a coalitional victory. The Coalition had now occupied most of Isfahan, but they couldn't capture the city of Kashan in Northern Isfahan. On October 19, the Coalition entered the Semnan Province and headed for the city of Semnan near the border to the Tehran Province. 120 died during the Battle of Semnan and it ended with an Iranian victory, but the Coalition had occupied much of the province. The Invasion of south-central Iran was nearly finished and the next and final goal would be to capture the city of Tehran, the capital of Iran!
Battle of TehranEdit
On October 28, the Coalition sent hundreds of soldiers to Tehran in military helicopters, supported by air fighters and tanks from across the world. Military installations, bridges and other areas in Tehran were bombed and many Iranian soldiers and civilians were killed. The Iranian soldiers and security forces were supported by Shi'ite guerilla fighters mainly from Iran and Iraq, but also from Azerbaijan, Yemen, Syria and other countries.
Within short time the Iran War had turned into a three-way war, as Al-Qaeda tried to gain ground in the now destabilized and chaotic country. The Coalition put even more effort into stopping Al-Qaeda and the guerilla fighters and the long lasting Battle of Tehran eventually ended with a Coalitional victory. The battle was the bloodiest during the war with more than 300 causalities on both sides. However, guerilla fighters and terrorists remained in Iran and continued to fight for years.
The war officially endsEdit
On December 23, the leaders of the Coalition announced that they now had control of the Islamic Republic of Iran and that they would launch a plan for the re-stabilization of the country. The Iran War had lasted 5 months, 1 week and 2 days, and thousands, both soldiers and civilians, were killed during the bloody war.
Exile of the Iranian leadersEdit
Ali Khamenei, the supreme leader of Iran, and Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, the president of Iran, both received exile in the anti-capitalistic country of Venezuela in South America, which was a close ally of Iran. The West urged Venezuela to release them so they could be tried for crimes against humanity in the Hague, Netherlands. However, Venezuela refused and tensions began to rise between them and the West.
Partition of IranEdit
On September 12, after the Coalition had occupied Northwestern Iran, the Iranian regions of Kurdistan and Azerbaijan declared independence. Baluchistan followed on September 17 and Khuzestan, or Al-Ahvaz, on October 13. Separatist movements had existed for a long time and the instability in Iran was an opportunity to secede from the country. However, the West Azerbaijan Province was disputed between Iranian Kurdistan and South Azerbaijan. On January 1 2013, the remaining parts of Iran changed its name from the Islamic Republic of Iran to the Republic of Iran, and a new president was elected. The flag of Iran was also changed.
Impact on the Arab-Israeli ConflictEdit
The Iran War united Israel and the Arab countries against the common enemy, Iran, and eventually brought an end to the Arab-Israeli Conflict. On January 1, the Treaty of Jerusalem was signed by Israel, the members of the Arab League, the Palestinian National Authority, Turkey and Iran. Israel moved back to its original borders and gave Palestine independence, while the Muslim countries, as well as the Muslim Brotherhood, recognized the existence of Israel. Anti-Israeli organizations such as Hezbollah still existed, but the majority of Islamic organizations now recognized the country.