The Third Gallifreyan Republic is a 5294 year old civilization based in the Tau Ceti star system, known as the Gallifreya system.
The Gallifreyan species is very human like, bipedal and may be mistaken as a human from afar, but they possess two hearts, added circulation to cope with the climate on Gallifrey, their home and third planet from Tau Ceti. They also have superior cognitive function. They have eyes that can see in infrared and ultraviolet, a result of their planet orbiting an orange colored star and genetic enhancement, thus making it look like they have no pupils when in fact they are just a very light grey. They usually breath oxygen, but can also undergo respiration in atmospheres of carbon dioxide/monoxide and sulfur, but not for long periods of time due to the latter being carcinogens. Gallifreyans have the same amount of digits as a regular human, but are more flexible and can do more delicate tasks.
The Gallifreyans evolved from a now extinct species, similar to a primate with avian and reptilian features. Some Gallifreyans still retain a few feather-like growths on their forearms or scaly skin, but it is viewed as a sign of good luck or fortune in Gallifreyan culture.
In 0 set (years since first Gallifreyan civilization), a community of Gallifreyans came together after a massive tidal surge that lasted 4 months pushed all intelligent species to the highest mountain in Gallifrey, Anicthera. After the tide went down, they created a civilization known as the Anictherain, similar to the Egyptian civilization of Earth. Since all other life on Gallifrey was killed off, whatever remained on Anicthera claimed the planet.
There are reports of a civilization before the Anictherain, the one that gave rise to a more civilized civilization.
Before this period Gallifrey was ruled under the name of the Anictherian Empire, but soon split up due to civil war and corruption. The remnants of the Anictherain Empire formed their own nations, Bacchusia, Dahrofuse, Tialansor, Fegalon, Andallion and other minor nations.
At this point in Gallifreyan history, there was a Renaissance-esque period where the technology they possessed was improved on by a discovery at the base of Anicthera.