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2015 invasion of Syria and Iraq

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2015 invasion of Syria and Iraq
Part of the War in Mesopotamia (2014-2021)
Date 21 February 2015 - 6 September 2015
Location Syria, Northern Iraq
Result Coalition victory
  • Assad government overthrown
  • Assad government in exile continues fighting coalition forces with support from Iran and Iraq
Belligerents
Coalition forces:

Flag of the United StatesUnited States
Flag of TurkeyTurkey
Flag of FranceFrance
Flag of the United KingdomUnited Kingdom
Flag of Saudi ArabiaSaudi Arabia
Flag of AustraliaAustralia
Flag of CanadaCanada
Flag of QatarQatar Combat support:
Flag of SyriaSyrian opposition
Flag of NATONATO
Flag of the United Arab EmiratesUnited Arab Emirates
Flag of JordanJordan
BahrainBahrain
Flag of KurdistanKurdistan

Flag of SyriaSyria

Flag of IranIran
Flag of IraqIraq
Flag of HezbollahHezbollah

ISIS flagIslamic State

780px-Flag of al-Qaeda.svgal-Nusra Front
780px-Flag of al-Qaeda.svgKhorosan

Commanders
Flag of the United StatesBarack Obama

Flag of the United StatesChuck Hagel
Flag of the United StatesJohn Kirby
Flag of the United StatesLloyd Austin
Flag of TurkeyRecep Tayyip Ergodan
Flag of TurkeyNecdet Ozel
Flag of FranceFrançois Hollande

Flag of SyriaBashar al-Assad

Flag of SyriaMaher al-Assad
Flag of SyriaAli Abdullah Ayyoub
Flag of IranAli Khamenei
Flag of IranHassan Rouhani
Flag of IranQasem Soleimani
Flag of IraqHaider al-Abadi

ISIS flagAbu Bakr al-Baghdadi

ISIS flagAbu Omar al-Shishani
ISIS flagAbu Ali al-Anbari
780px-Flag of al-Qaeda.svgAbu Mohammad al-Golani

Strength
Flag of the United States120,000

Flag of Turkey32,000
Flag of France20,000
Flag of the United Kingdom17,000
Flag of Saudi Arabia12,500
Flag of Australia3,000
Flag of Canada1,200
Flag of Qatar400

Flag of Syria180,000 - 250,000

Flag of Iran25,000 - 30,000
Flag of Iraq80,000 in northern Iraq

ISIS flag30,000 - 50,000

780px-Flag of al-Qaeda.svg15,000 - 20,000

Casualties and losses
Flag of the United States1,627

Flag of Turkey384
Flag of France312
Flag of the United Kingdom124
Flag of Saudi Arabia205
Flag of Australia113
Flag of Canada102
Flag of Qatar20

Flag of Syria34,000

Flag of Iran3,100
Flag of Iraq2,470

ISIS flag6,000 - 8,000

780px-Flag of al-Qaeda.svg2,000 - 5,000

70,000 - 90,000 civilians killed


The 2015 invasion of Syria and Iraq was the invasion of Syria and Northern Iraq by coalition forces as part of the War in Mesopotamia. It ended in a victory for coalition forces and the overthrow of the Syrian government of Bashar al-Assad.

Pretext

War against ISIS

US-led coalition forces began direct military action against the Islamic State, also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) beginning in August 2014. Strikes against the group in Syria began in September. As airstrikes seemed to have little effect on ISIS's advances, many US government officials soon realized that the war against ISIS could not be won just in the air.

Turkish no-fly zone

In November 2014, Turkey began enforcing a no-fly zone over Northern Syria without the permission of the Syrian government. Top Syrian officials called the no-fly zone an attack on Syria's sovereignty and territorial integrity. Syrian air defense systems attempted to force Turkish aircraft out of Northern Syria and 3 aircraft were shot down. As a result of this, coalition forces began airstrikes against the Syrian government and relations between coalition forces and the Iraqi government deteriorated as Iraq began backing the Assad government. By December, Western leaders were calling for all out regime change in Syria and it became evident that ground forces would be needed.

Initial invasion

US president Barrack Obama finally approved the deployment of up to 12,000 US ground combat troops to Northern Iraq and Northern Syria on 21 February 2015.

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